Methods[ edit ] The method through which cultural reproduction is perpetuated varies by the socializing agent's relative location, awareness, and intention to reproduce social or cultural norms. Enculturation can be described as "a partly conscious and partly unconscious learning experience when the older generation invites, induces, and compels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and behaving".
Concept[ edit ] This section includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Definition In European history, high culture was understood as a cultural concept common to the humanities, until the midth century, when Matthew Arnold introduced the term high culture in the book Culture and Anarchy Moreover, the philosophy of aesthetics proposed in high culture is a force for moral and political good.
Critically, the term "high culture" is contrasted with the terms " popular culture " and " mass culture ". Eliot said that high culture and popular culture are necessary and complementary parts of the culture of a society.
In The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart presents the sociologic experience of the working-class man and woman in acquiring the cultural literacy, at university, which facilitates social upward mobility.
Leavis pursued the definition of high culture, by way of the Western canon of literature. Eliot Media theorist Steven Johnson writes that, unlike popular culture, "the classics—and soon to be classics—are" in their own right descriptions and explanations of the cultural systems that produced them.
In the classical Greco-Roman tradition, the ideal mode of language was published and preserved in works of elevated style correct grammar, syntax, and diction.
Certain forms of language used by authors in valorized epochs were held up in antiquity and the Renaissance as eternal valid models and normative standards of excellence; e.
Indeed, the Greco-Roman world tended to see such manual, commercial, and technical labor as subordinate to purely intellectual activities. The leisured gentleman not weighed down by the necessity of earning a living, was free to devote himself to activities proper to such a "free man"  — those deemed to involve true excellence and nobility as opposed to mere utility.
This ideal associated with humanism a later term derived from the humanities or studia humanitatiswas communicated in Renaissance Italy through institutions such as the Renaissance court schools.
Renaissance humanism soon spread through Europe becoming much of the basis of upper class education for centuries. A key contribution of the Renaissance was the elevation of painting and sculpture to a status equal to the liberal arts hence the visual arts lost for elites any lingering negative association with manual artisanship.
The early Renaissance treatises of High pop and cultural values essay Battista Alberti were instrumental in this regard. However, aristocratic patronage through most of the modern era was also pivotal to the support and creation of new works of high culture across the range of arts, music, and literature.
The subsequent prodigious development of the modern European languages and cultures meant that the modern definition of the term "high culture" embraces not only Greek and Latin texts, but a much broader canon of select literary, philosophical, historical, and scientific books in both ancient and modern languages.
Of comparable importance are those works of art and music considered to be of the highest excellence and broadest influence e. Together these texts and art works constitute the exemplary artifacts representing the high culture of the Western world.
Cultural traditions In the Western and some East Asian traditions, art that demonstrates the imagination of the artist is accorded the status of high art. In the West this tradition began in Ancient Greece, was reinforced in the Renaissanceand by Romanticismwhich eliminated the hierarchy of genres within the fine artswhich was established in the Renaissance.
In China there was a distinction between the literati painting by the scholar-officials and the work produced by common artists, working in largely different styles, or the decorative arts such as Chinese porcelain which were produced by unknown craftsmen working in large factories.
In both China and the West the distinction was especially clear in landscape paintingwhere for centuries imaginary views, produced from the imagination of the artist, were considered superior works. Cultural capital In socially-stratified Europe and the Americas, a first-hand immersion to the high culture of the West, the Grand Tour of Europewas a rite of passage that complemented and completed the book education of a gentlemanfrom the nobility, the aristocracy, and the bourgeoisie, with a worldly perspective of society and civilisation.
The post-university tour of the cultural centres of Europe was a social-class benefit of the cultural capital transmitted through the high-status institutions schools, academies, universities meant to produce the ideal gentleman of that society. The European concept of high culture included cultivation of refined etiquette and manners; the education of taste in the fine arts such as sculpture and painting; an appreciation of classical music and opera in its diverse history and myriad forms; knowledge of the humane letters literae humaniores represented by the best Greek and Latin authors, and more broadly of the liberal arts traditions e.
The Metropolitan Museum of Arton Fifth Avenue Much of high culture consists of the appreciation of what is sometimes called "high art". This term is rather broader than Arnold's definition and besides literature includes music, visual arts especially paintingand traditional forms of the performing arts including some cinema.
The decorative arts would not generally be considered high art. Such an environment enables artists, as near as possible, to realize their creative potential with as few as possible practical and technical constraints.
Although the Western concept of high culture naturally concentrates on the Greco-Roman tradition, and its resumption from the Renaissance onwards, such conditions existed in other places at other times. Art music Art music or serious music  or erudite music is an umbrella term used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural and theoretical considerations and a written musical tradition.
He explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria, with high cultural music often performed to an audience whilst folk music would traditionally be more participatory.
Art film Art film is the result of filmmaking which is typically a serious, independent film aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. According to the film scholar David Bordwell"art cinema itself is a film genrewith its own distinct conventions.
The term has always been susceptible to attack for elitismand, in response, many proponents of the concept devoted great efforts to promoting high culture among a wider public than the highly educated bourgeoisie whose natural territory it was supposed to be.
There was a drive, beginning in the 19th century, to open museums and concert halls to give the general public access to high culture. Figures such as John Ruskin and Lord Reith of the BBC in Britain, Leon Trotsky and others in Communist Russiaand many others in America and throughout the western world have worked to widen the appeal of elements of high culture such as classical musicart by old masters and the literary classics.
With the widening of access to university education, the effort spread there, and all aspects of high culture became the objects of academic study, which with the exception of the classics had not often been the case until the late 19th century.
University liberal arts courses still play an important role in the promotion of the concept of high culture, though often now avoiding the term itself. Especially in Europe, governments have been prepared to subsidize high culture through the funding of museumsopera and ballet companies, orchestrascinema, public broadcasting stations such as BBC Radio 3ARTEand in other ways.
Organizations such as the Arts Council of Great Britainand in most European countries, whole ministries administer these programs.Pop Art is an abbreviation of Popular Art, the images used in Pop Art were taken from popular or "pop" culture.
This was the birth of Popular culture.
It was to reflect the novelty and excitement of the high speed modern world but was also a reflection of the materialism and vulgarity of modern mass culture.#3/5(6). The pop culture was opposed to the official culture with its higher education and income standards. After the World War II, the term acquired the new meaning of “mass” culture, or “consumerism” culture.
Cultural reproduction is the transmission of existing cultural values and norms from generation to generation. Cultural reproduction refers to the mechanisms by which continuity of cultural experience is sustained across time.
Cultural reproduction often results in social reproduction, or the process of transferring aspects of society (such as class) from generation to generation. As I am understanding things the opposite of tolerating something is trying to change it.
This is dangerous and difficult. Trying to change other people’s behavior always has high costs (summed over you, the people you are trying to change and any bystanders who get involved). By contrast abstract and pseudo-universal definitions of high culture and popular culture, restricting meaning and value to a single tradition and contemplating the meanings and values of the.
Jun 27, · No account of the Jewish Question in Germany can be complete without some mention of the tidal wave of sexual immorality that was to engulf the country during the period of the Weimar Republic () following World War One.
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