Brill, Leiden, Netherlands All rights reserved. Academic but not other addresses are given for a retired scholar, the place of his last known academic appointment. In this list, names in square brackets are those of authors of articles reprinted or revised from the first edition of this Encyclopaedia or from the Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Translated and edited by James D.
Pauluskommentare aus der griechischen Kirche: Aus Katenhandschriften gesamrmlt wad herausgegeben. Translated by Geoffrey W. Eerdmans, [I]—I . Jenni, Ernst, and Claus Westermann, eds.
Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. Translated by Mark E. Edited by James Hope Moulton. Adapted from the fourth Latin edition by Joseph Smith, S.
Pontificio Instituto Biblico, Other abbreviations In biblical citations and citations from rabbinic literature I have used the customary i2b business plan handbuch fire, as presented, for example, on pages xx—xxi of the OCB. Originally I intended it to follow the pattern of my earlier study, A Preface to Mark: As with A Preface to Mark, and reflecting the fact that the literature that composes what we now call "the New Testament" was not created in a vacuum, the study as a whole was also to involve discussion of and comparison with other literature from Paul's time, place, and milieu—including, of course, other writings attributed to Paul.
Yet Paul's Letter to the Romans is, obviously, a very different kind of text from the Gospel according to Mark. Mark, though it involves theological reflection, presents itself first of all as a narrative; Romans, though it implies a narrative, presents itself first of all as theological reflection.
This difference has led to at least two equally obvious changes in my own style. First, the immediate challenge with which Romans faces any student is actually to follow its argument; therefore the second part of A Preface to Romans follows the biblical text much more closely—virtually lineby-line—than did the second part of A Preface to Mark.
This is because it seemed 1. Christopher Bryan, A Preface to Mark: Oxford University Press, For the sake of argument, I assume throughout this study direct Pauline authorship of those letters normally attributed to him by contemporary scholars that is, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon.
Other Pauline literature I refer to with qualification, as representing at the very least how some early disciples understood and tried to reflect his teaching; similarly with traditions about Paul m Acts. The Purpose of the Inquiry In academic terms, I approach texts first as a literary critic.
My immediate interest is to ask how the work I am considering is likely to have been heard and understood by those who first encountered it; and since I do not suppose that the texts I am examining were composed by the totally incompetent, I suspect that that may have some bearing on the author's purpose.
Despite the claims of some twentieth-century critics, I remain convinced that through authors' words it is possible to see something of their minds, and something of what they are trying to tell us.
We all base our convictions on our own stories, and perhaps the reason that I think like this is, in the last analysis, because I too, in a small way, use words and make texts in order to tell stories and share ideas. I should be frustrated indeed if I believed that it were all finally a matter of luck or coincidence whether my readers received from my words anything at all of what I intended.
Equally, however, I concede that words need to be interpreted, and that any interpretation—and particularly any interpretation of an ancient text that was evidently never regarded as easy see 2 Peter 3.
You and I may listen to the same words on the same occasion, but the chances are we shall each learn something different from them, because we are not the same person.
If the words are about something fairly limited in scope or significance, like the distance from Rome to Naples, the difference may not matter much.
If it is about something more complex, arousing our emotions or our commitments, then the difference may be very great indeed. One value of critical scholarship—that is, of the best historical and literary understanding we can obtain of our texts—is that it affords us a measure of defense I do not say a complete defense 3 against interpretations that simply indulge our fantasies, our fears, or our desires.
Nothing here stated of texts in general is altered if the text in question is regarded as divinely inspired. In both Jewish and Christian tradition, it is precisely those texts that are inspired that require interpretation. That is why rabbinic legend tells of God studying Scripture each morning, and Moses receiving authoritative exegesis at Sinai b.
Such stories affirm an essential connection between the Bible and studying the Bible:gramgeseniushebrewgr00gese. Uploaded by duanelea. to repeat with grammatical and exegetical notes It is wants of the student.X PREFACE The grammatical an improved plan..
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Thus, an Egyptian papyrus from BC shows a woman being appointed legal prostasis for her son A small but significant number of women are mentioned on coins as benefactors and officials, and as receiving municipal honors. At Pompeii, a woman called Eumachia made her money by a brick manufacturing business.
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